The current transformer is utilized for both protection and measurement. The current transformer is used to convert high current into the desired value of the required current in the circuit when the current in the circuit is too high to apply directly to the measuring device.
The main supply, the primary winding of the current transformer, and various measuring devices like an ammeter, voltmeter, wattmeter, or protective relay coil are all linked in series. To enable the meter to function effectively on the secondary side, they have accurate current ratio and phase relation. In CT, the term ratio is quite important.
For instance, if the ratio is 2000:5, a CT has a 5 Amp output while the primary side input current is 2000 Amp. Numerous variables, such as the current transformer’s burden, load, temperature, phase change, rating, saturation, etc., affect its accuracy.
The total primary current in a current transformer is the vector sum of the excitation current and the current equal to the secondary current’s reversal times the turn ratio.
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