Synthetic fibres, also known as synthetic fibers (in British English; see spelling variations) are the fibers created by humans via chemical synthesis as opposed natural fibers directly taken from living creatures, like trees (like cotton) or fur from animals. They result from an extensive study by scientists to reproduce naturally occurring plant and animal fibers. Synthetic fibers are made by extruding fiber forming materials through spinnerets, forming an elongated fiber like Aluminium extrusion. They are referred to as synthetic or synthetic fibers. The term “polymer” comes from a Greek term that includes the suffix “poly” which translates to “many” and the suffix “mer” that signifies “single pieces”. (Note that every single unit of a polymer is called”monomer.”).
The first fully synthetic fiber was glass. Joseph Swan invented one of the first synthetic fibers in the early 1880s; today it would be described as semisynthetic, in the precise sense. His fiber was drawn from a cellulose liquid, made by chemically altering the fiber contained in tree bark. The fiber that was created by the process was chemically similar in its potential applications to the carbon filament Swan designed to power its incandescent lamp but Swan quickly realized its potential to revolutionize manufacturing of textiles. In 1885, he unveiled the fabrics he created from synthesized material during the International Inventions Exhibition in London.
Another step taken by Hilaire de Chardonnet, a French industrialist and engineer who developed the first artificial silk. He called it “Chardonnet silk”. In the 1870s, Chardonnet was working together with Louis Pasteur on a remedy for the plague that was decimating French silkworms. The inability to eliminate the mess in the darkroom caused Chardonnet to discover nitrocellulose as a potential replacement for silk. In the wake of a discovery, Chardonnet began to develop his own product, which presented during the Paris Exhibition of 1889. Chardonnet’s material was extremely inflammable and was later substituted with other, more stable substances.